Europe

GAS PRICE CAP

gas price cap

PRO Business MS

Accounting and Finance

gas price cap
GAS PRICE CAP

PRICE CAP

EU energy ministers have clashed over a plan to put a price cap on Russian gas, casting doubt on whether the measure will go ahead.

Speaking after emergency talks in Brussels in response to surging gas and electricity prices, the EU’s energy commissioner, Kadri Simson, said “nothing is decided” on proposals to curb Russia’s income.

Vladimir Putin has dismissed the idea as “stupid” and threatened to make Europe “freeze” this winter, if a cap is agreed. Russia has already slashed supplies to Europe and said it will not resume flows at previous volumes until the EU lifts sanctions. Russian supply makes up only 9% of EU gas imports, down from 40% before the invasion of Ukraine.

Simson defended the cap plan as reasonable. “The context of this measure is that Russia is gaining huge profits by manipulating and limiting, artificially, supply to drive up prices. And the cap would reduce these profits,” she told reporters on Friday.

There was more consensus over a proposal to cap the high price of EU-produced electricity from renewable sources, such as wind, solar and nuclear, and to reduce energy consumption across the region. The European Commission favours a mandatory 5% cut in electricity use during peak hours.

Countries that import large volumes from Russia, including Hungary, Slovakia and Austria, have spoken out against the cap proposal because they fear the Kremlin would halt all gas flows, plunging their countries into recession.

“If price restrictions were to be imposed exclusively on Russian gas, that would evidently lead to an immediate cut-off in Russian gas supplies,” said Hungarian foreign minister Péter Szijjártó, who was attending the meeting. “It does not take a Nobel Prize to recognise that.”

Around a dozen countries, including France and Poland, say the price cap should apply to all imported gas, including liquified natural gas. The EU energy commissioner voiced doubts about that approach, saying that a general price cap “could present a security of supply challenge”.

Since the invasion of Ukraine, the EU has been scrambling to secure supplies shipped in from other countries, such as Qatar, Norway and the United States, but it faces stiff competition from Asia. “Right now it is important that we can replace decreasing Russian volumes with alternative suppliers,” Simson said.

Only the Baltic states, who have long argued for sanctions on Russian gas, gave full-throated support to the plan. Riina Sikkut, Estonia’s minister for economic affairs and infrastructure, urged other members to ignore Putin’s threats, saying: “It is blackmail, it is war that is waged outside Ukraine … We have to have the political will to make Ukraine win.”

Ministers were more aligned on dealing with a distortion in the energy market, which has seen renewable and nuclear energy companies reaping huge profits because the price of all electricity is pegged to the price of wholesale gas. The proposals are for a cap on power from wind, solar and nuclear, and the redistribution of revenues to vulnerable consumers and businesses.

Ministers also backed a plan to reduce demand for electricity, although Czech industry minister Jozef Síkela, who chaired the meeting, indicated that member states wanted voluntary targets, rather than a legally-binding obligation.

“EU energy ministers have agreed the EU needs a comprehensive plan to face the ongoing energy crisis,” said Simone Tagliapietra, a senior energy expert at the Bruegel think tank. “As all these measures are extraordinarily complex to be engineered, it will take a great political commitment by member states to quickly adopt them in the coming weeks. Europe is off for a grand bargain on energy.”

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America v Europe: A comparability of riches leaves either side red-faced

comparability of riches

PRO Business MS

Accounting and Finance

comparability of riches
America v Europe: A comparability of riches leaves either side red-faced

Can comparibility of riches be made?

 

When David Hockney’s mom visited the British artist in Los Angeles she made an commentary that factors to the difficulties with transatlantic financial comparisons. “Strange,” she stated, after a few days within the solar, “all this lovely weather and you never see any washing out.”

It is an commentary many European guests have echoed. American travellers to Europe, in the meantime, typically despair at washer-dryer machines that depart garments damp. Indeed, for some American writers the dearth of standalone dryers is symbolic of the continent’s backwardness. While financial statistics ought to remedy such debates—by permitting for apples-to-apples comparisons—they don’t seem to be resistant to the issues posed by cultural variations. Is it that Europeans can’t afford correct tumble dryers? Or are they merely getting their “drying services” freed from cost?

Questions like these are vital when evaluating nations. On the floor, America has by far one of the best case for prosperity. Gross home product (gdp) per individual is nearly $70,000. The solely European nations the place it’s larger are Luxembourg, Switzerland, Norway and Ireland, the place figures are distorted by corporations’ revenue shifting.

In Germany, Europe’s financial powerhouse, gdp per individual (adjusted for purchasing-power parity) is $58,000. That places it degree with Vermont, however far beneath New York ($93,000) and California ($86,000). The comparisons are even much less flattering for different European nations. Incomes in Britain and France are equal to these in Mississippi ($42,000), America’s poorest state.

Yet loads is hidden by these figures. To perceive why, think about how they’re calculated. Spending is deflated by some measure of worth, to permit correct comparisons between nations of the quantity of products and providers bought. For manufactured items it is a simple calculation: the quantity Americans spend on dryers, divided by an index of their value, will give a fairly correct determine for complete consumption.

For providers, it’s tougher to work out an affordable deflator. And that issues as a result of it’s right here, relatively than family home equipment, the place Europe and America differ most. Combined spending on well being care, housing and finance accounts for about half the distinction in consumption between America and the most important European economies. In 2019 Americans consumed $12,000-worth of well being providers per individual; Germans managed simply $7,000.

The problem in figuring out an affordable deflator is partly conceptual. What are individuals paying for after they purchase well being care, a service or an end result? Is a unit of “health-care services” the price of a selected therapy or the price of well being? What does being wholesome even imply?And can we make comaprability of riches International worth indices merely (and a bit unsatisfactorily) calculate the worth per therapy. These differ considerably.

The oecd, a membership of largely wealthy nations, estimates {that a} hip alternative in Norway prices seven occasions as a lot as one in Latvia and Lithuania. In any case, whereas American costs are larger than European ones, the hole shouldn’t be sufficiently big to account for the distinction in health-care consumption: Americans additionally endure tons extra medical therapy.

Simon Kuznets, a Nobel-prize-winning economist and statistician, advised estimates of gdp ought to exclude issues an “enlightened social philosophy” would think about harms relatively than advantages. For him, that included weapons, promoting, a lot of finance and something essential to “overcome difficulties that are, properly speaking, costs implicit in our economic civilisation”.

Many Europeans would counsel this class rightfully contains American health-care spending. Life expectancy in America is 5 years decrease than in Italy; a number of cash is spent fixing the harm finished by larger ranges of violent crime, site visitors accidents and weight problems. Follow Kuznets’s recommendation—by eradicating from the calculation finance, well being, public administration and defence spending—and the hole between America and Germany in gdp per hour labored drops from $11 to only $4.

Much of the remaining hole is accounted for by “housing services”, a class of consumption equally bedevilled by conceptual difficulties. International comparisons are finished on the premise of the rental value per sq. metre. That flatters sparsely populated America and its sprawling cities, the place rents are usually cheaper. While practically everybody would relatively have a much bigger home, preferences for suburban over city dwelling are hardly common.

 

Top greenback

 

There are diminishing returns to America’s spending on well being care. But treating all of it as an extra value can be a mistake. Cancer survival charges are larger in America than Europe. Health-care spending will be thought-about a luxurious good {that a} richer nation could select to spend extra on (Germany, Norway and Switzerland spend essentially the most in Europe). Meanwhile, as American defence hawks prefer to level out, Europe’s low army spending is feasible solely due to America’s largesse and the safety it gives.

America has different real benefits. The mixture of upper productiveness and the truth that employees spend extra time at work permits Americans to get pleasure from higher portions of client electronics, vehicles, furnishings and garments. The solely classes wherein Germans and the French constantly eat extra are schooling, spending overseas, and food and drinks, suggesting there’s something to stereotypes of Europe’s cosmopolitan café tradition and America’s infatuation with client items.

Still, whereas arguments will be made for Europe, there isn’t any means of slicing the info, regardless of your columnist’s greatest efforts, to make the continent’s greatest economies richer than America. Even within the areas the place Europe does eat greater than America, the old-world economies should not forward by a lot. Maybe the true lesson of the comparability is that neither facet must be glad: Europeans needs to be sad with their decrease incomes; Americans actually needs to be getting much more from their riches. ■

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